Image by Free-Photos from Pixabay

EXPERT REACTION: IPCC 2019 Special Report on Climate Change and Land

Embargoed until: Publicly released:

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is releasing Climate Change and Land, a special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gases. A press conference will be held at the end of the embargo period, which is subject to change as it depends on the document being finalised (which is happening in the preceding days). To gain access to the report under embargo, you must register directly with the IPCC - we cannot pass this onto you. For registration, you'll need scanned copies of media credentials (registration information can be found below).

Organisation/s: Australian Science Media Centre, The University of New South Wales, CSIRO, Griffith University, The Australian National University

Media Briefing/Press Conference

From: IPCC

Media registration for IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land

GENEVA, June 20 – The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will consider the Special Report Climate Change and Land on 2 – 6 August 2019 during its 50th Session to be held in Geneva, Switzerland.

The full title of the report is Climate Change and Land, an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems (SRCCL).

Formally, the draft Summary for Policymakers (SPM) will be considered by the Second Joint Session of IPCC Working Groups I, II and III. The work of the Working Group Session is then submitted to the 50th Session of the IPCC for acceptance.

Press conference

A press conference to present the Summary for Policymakers of Climate Change and Land will be held after the 50th Session, subject to approval of the Summary for Policymakers.

When:             10:00 a.m. CEST (Geneva) on Thursday, 8 August 2019

(04.00 EDT (New York) , 08:00 GMT, 09:00 BST (London), 11:00 EAT (Nairobi),     15:00 ICT (Bangkok))

Where:           World Meteorological Organization (WMO) headquarters

7 bis Avenue de la Paix, Geneva, Switzerland

IPCC Chair Hoesung Lee and the Co-Chairs of the three Working Groups of the IPCC and the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories will address the press conference. The press conference will be streamed live. Details on how to access the live stream and ask questions remotely will be sent closer to the time.

The IPCC Chair, Co-Chairs and report authors will be available for interview after the press conference. Details on how media can request interviews will be sent in the coming weeks.

Opening Session

The 50th Session of the IPCC will open at 10:00 a.m. (CEST) on Friday, 2 August, 2019 at the headquarters of the WMO in Geneva, Switzerland.

The opening session, running from 10 to 11 a.m., will be addressed by the IPCC Chair, and by senior officials from the United Nations Environment Programme, the WMO, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and Switzerland.

The opening session is open to the media. A limited number of places for journalists are available and priority will be given to wire services and local media. Otherwise the IPCC meeting is closed to the public and media.

Embargoed materials

The Summary for Policymakers of the Special Report on Climate Change and Land, the press release and any other press materials will be made available to registered media under embargo shortly after approval of the Summary for Policymakers. Please note that registering for the Opening Session and/or the press conference will not automatically provide you with access to embargoed materials. Media representatives who want access to the embargoed materials must check the option for “embargo” on the online form, regardless of whether they are registering to attend the press conference or not.

The embargo will run until the start of the press conference. Registered media will receive an email alert when the embargoed material is posted. The exact time that the embargoed material is made available will depend on the time the plenary approves the Summary for Policymakers and accepts the underlying report. Registering for access will require media representatives to agree to adhere to the terms of the embargo. Failure to adhere to the terms and conditions will result in that journalist or media outlet being excluded from future embargo arrangements.

How to register

The IPCC operates its own registration and accreditation system. Please check our accreditation and registration FAQs

It is not necessary to register simply to follow the live stream of the press conference. Registration is only required to attend the press conference and/or opening session in person, and/or to access embargoed materials.

To attend the press conference and/or the opening session in person and/or get access to embargoed materials, please register on the IPCC website here:

Please ensure that you have scanned copies of your credentials ready when you start filling in the form, as the system will not allow you to proceed without uploading these. You can upload up to two files in JPG, PNG and PDF formats.

The required credentials are:

  • A letter of assignment requesting accreditation on official letterhead of a media organization, signed by the publisher, editor-in-chief, or assignment editor. It should include the name and duration of assignment of the journalist; and
  • A valid press card; or a valid media accreditation badge for the United Nations in New York, Geneva, Vienna or Nairobi. If you do not have a press card, please submit 3 recent samples (i.e. from the last six months) of your work in a relevant area and a scanned copy of a valid photo ID or passport.

Before filling in the form, please carefully read the guidelines below, which need to be followed by all users, including media representatives who have used the system before.

On the IPCC media portal, follow the following steps:

  • Select the event;
  • Select from the following options:  opening session; press  conference; embargo. You can choose one, two, or all three options;
  • Fill in the rest of the form;
  • Upload your credentials;
  • Click “Submit”;
  • Read information on the pop-up window and click “I agree” to submit the form.

The IPCC media team will review your credentials. When you are registered to attend the opening session and/or the press conference you will receive a confirmation email with a document that you must bring with you to pick up your badge at the media desk in Geneva. If you request access to embargo materials, the email you receive will have credentials to use to log into the system. To access the system you will need to agree to respect the terms of the embargo.Please note that due to the high number of requests, approval of registration might take a number of days.

If you have used the system before, the email that you receive will indicate that you should use “Your global IPCC password”, which refers to your previous password. In case you have lost it, please click “Forgot password” on the IPCC media registration page.

The deadline for registration is Friday 26 July 2019. We encourage you to register as soon as possible and not leave it to the last minute as the IPCC has limited capacity to deal with late or last-minute requests. The IPCC cannot guarantee that it will be able to review requests submitted after the deadline.

Embargoed materials are primarily for the use of media covering the report, but access may be extended to relevant bodies preparing communications activities and materials to coincide with the release of the report. Like media representatives, you will be required when registering and when accessing materials to agree to respect the terms of the embargo.

Registration details

Each member of a media team should register separately using a different email address in order to get access to the venue. If you work as a photographer or as part of a TV crew you are asked to indicate this on the letter of assignment so that the IPCC can plan sufficient space. Please also state any special requirements, e.g. for TV crews.

There is limited space for satellite trucks and wireless broadcasting is preferred due to space limitations. If you need space for this, please let us know on your letter of assignment. Please also indicate whether you would like satellite broadcast facilities. The deadline for these requests is 26 July 2019.

In order to get access to the opening session and press conference venue, you will need to pick up your press badge at the WMO building. The desk will be open at the following times (CEST):

  • 16.00 – 18.00 on 1 August 2019
  • 08.00 – 10.00 on 2 August 2019
  • 16.00 – 18.00 on 7 August 2019
  • 08.00 – 10.00 on 8 August 2019

To facilitate the process, please bring with you the original credentials that you submitted with your request and your passport or a valid ID, as well as the confirmation document. We advise you to pick up your badges as early as possible and not wait until the last minute.

Other arrangements

The IPCC will advise nearer the time how to request interviews both in person at the site of the press conference and by phone or email, and how to access the live stream of the press conference, and will issue a further advisory on arrangements for broadcasters.

For more information contact:

IPCC Press Office, Email:

Jonathan Lynn, + 41 22 730 8066, Werani Zabula, + 41 22 730 8120, Nina Peeva, + 41 22 730 8142

Notes for Editors

About the IPCC

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the UN body for assessing the science related to climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide policymakers with regular scientific assessments concerning climate change, its implications and potential future risks, and to put forward adaptation and mitigation strategies. It has 195 member states.

IPCC assessments provide governments, at all levels, with scientific information that they can use to develop climate policies. IPCC assessments are a key input into the international negotiations to tackle climate change. IPCC reports are drafted and reviewed in several stages, thus guaranteeing objectivity and transparency.

The IPCC assesses the thousands of scientific papers published each year to inform policymakers about the state of knowledge on climate change. The IPCC identifies where there is agreement in the scientific community, where there are differences and where further research is needed. It does not conduct its own research.

To produce its reports, the IPCC mobilizes hundreds of scientists. These scientists and officials are drawn from diverse backgrounds. Only a dozen permanent staff work in the IPCC’s Secretariat.

The IPCC has three working groups: Working Group I (the physical science basis of climate change); Working Group II (impacts, adaptation and vulnerability); and Working Group III (mitigation of climate change). It also has a Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories that develops methodologies for measuring emissions and removals. All of these are supported by Technical Support Units guiding the production of IPCC assessment reports and other products.

IPCC Assessment Reports consist of contributions from each of the three working groups and a Synthesis Report. Special Reports undertake a shorter assessment of specific cross-disciplinary issues that usually span more than one working group.

About the Sixth Assessment Cycle

At its 41st Session in February 2015, the IPCC decided to produce a Sixth Assessment Report (AR6). At its 42nd Session in October 2015 it elected a new Bureau that would oversee the work on this report and Special Reports to be produced in the assessment cycle.

The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C was released in October 2018. The Methodology Report 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories was adopted and accepted in May 2019.

Besides the Special Report on Climate Change and Land, the IPCC is working on the Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, which will be considered by the Panel at its 51st Session scheduled for 20 – 23 September 2019 in the Principality of Monaco.

The three Working Group contributions to the AR6 will be finalized in 2021 and the AR6 Synthesis Report will be completed in the first half of 2022.

For more information go to


  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Web page

Expert Reaction

These comments have been collated by the Science Media Centre to provide a variety of expert perspectives on this issue. Feel free to use these quotes in your stories. Views expressed are the personal opinions of the experts named. They do not represent the views of the SMC or any other organisation unless specifically stated.

Professor Will Steffen is a member of the Climate Council. He is former Director of the ANU Climate Change Institute

The report seems to miss the critical role that land systems play in terms of feedbacks to the Earth System as a whole.

For example, there is credible evidence that a tipping point may exist for the Amazon rainforest, where a combination of direct human land-clearing and climate change - primarily through changing rainfall regimes - can trigger a rapid conversion of much of the forest to savanna or grassland ecosystems, thereby emitting large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere.

Yet there seems to be little attention given to such global-level feedbacks and abrupt shifts associated with land systems. 

Ominously, the report does mention the potential degradation of large areas of permafrost in the far north.

Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I, noted that "there are very high risks related to permafrost degradation and food system instability that have been identified at 2°C of global warming".

Given that the 1.5°C Paris seems out of reach already, this warning adds to the concern that a global-level threshold or tipping point, consisting of interlinked feedback processes, could lie at temperature increases as low as 2°C above pre-industrial.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:59am
Declared conflicts of interest:
None declared.
Professor Paul Burton is the Director of the Cities Research Institute at Griffith University in Queensland

The latest IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land (Summary for Policy Makers) notes that human use directly affects more than 70 per cent of the global, ice-free land surface and that it provides the principal basis for our livelihoods.

Much of this comes from providing what we call ecosystem services, such as freshwater supply and food production.

As the global population grows, so the demand for freshwater and for food also grows and this accounts for much of the pressure to convert land to agriculture and forestry. 

But a growing population also needs land for housing, for jobs, schools and shops and this increasingly takes the form of large cities, which in turn often grow by converting agricultural land and areas of native vegetation on their fringes into urban areas.

Urbanisation and urban development contributes, therefore, to the problems of climate change not just in terms of land use change, but also by concentrating GHG emissions and creating increasingly deadly urban heat island effects.

The concentration of people in high-density settlements can also present serious challenges for adaptation as built environments are not especially flexible and adaptable.

Forms of urban growth that have been commonplace in Australia over the last century, involving low-density suburbs spreading outwards, consuming farmland and native vegetation and building-in car-dependency cannot make a significant contribution to any of the positive or optimistic pathways identified by the IPCC.

However, cities and urban areas also have the potential to contribute to mitigation strategies, but only if they are well managed and well designed.

Investment in appropriate green infrastructure in cities in the form of parks, urban forests and green roofs can make them healthier places, both physically and mentally, and well-designed buildings that generate their own energy, capture and use their own water and process their own waste can help reduce the carbon footprint of cities.  

This potential will only be realised through good planning and urban design which in turn must be built upon innovative forms of urban governance that tap into the creativity and desire to change among urban citizens.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:58am
Declared conflicts of interest:
None declared.
Dr Gillian Sparkes is the Victorian Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability.

Having recently completed the five-yearly Victorian 2018 State of the Environment Report (SoE), an independent scientific report on the environmental health of Victoria that includes extensive research and data on land use and agriculture, the IPCC’s Special Report Climate Change and Land (SRCCL) is timely.

Like SoE the SRCCL report highlights the growing pressures on the land-climate system.

Its findings add to the substantial body of scientific knowledge relating to climate change risk. The SRCCL report shows that while better land management can contribute to tackling climate change, it is not the only solution.

The SRCCL report also finds that policies outside the land and energy domains “can make a critical difference to tackling climate change”.

The findings around land use and climate change in this latest SRCCL report support the recommendation in the 2018 Victorian SoE that the path of reform guided by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the correct one in the pursuit of ecologically sustainable development.

My job as Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability in Victoria, Australia is not just to review and report on the condition of Victoria’s environment, it is also to encourage decision-making that facilitates ecologically sustainable development.

The 2018 SoE report includes a Future Focus section that presents 20 recommendations that deal with specific and systemic issues, to support environmental improvements in Victoria to 2030.

Three recommendations relate specifically to improving the impacts of climate change on land and sustainable land management. They are:

1.    Improve regional climate projections
Regional climate projections at a finer spatial resolution, and more accurate rainfall projections, are required to improve management outcomes on land. Greater detail in climate projections can improve the proactive planning for many natural assets and sectors, including agriculture, with rainfall projections a particularly valuable tool for long-term policy development.

2.    Improve Victoria’s biodiversity outcomes on private land
Of the 35 biodiversity indicators in the SoE 2018 report, approximately half (18) are assessed as deteriorating in trend and approximately a quarter (9) have been assessed as “low performing”.[1] The lack of coordination of biodiversity and land data across agencies and an underinvestment in biodiversity science are critical issues impacting on biodiversity loss and impairing sustainable land management.

The rate of biodiversity loss on private land requires greater focus and effort by government. Victoria has nearly 23 million hectares of land: public land accounts for 37% and private land 63%. Private land conservation through permanent protection has been increasing across the state. However, it occurs at a slower rate than biodiversity loss and needs to be addressed as a priority over the next decade.

3.    Improve understanding of soil and land conditions and threats.
To manage Victoria’s land health during a time of climate change, improved coordination is required for the collection, consolidation, reporting and assessment of land data to drive statewide improvements in land-health condition across Victoria.

The main challenges to soil monitoring are the inherently high variability of soils (the changes are minor and occur over decades), and that measuring soil characteristics can be expensive. These are national issues.

New collaboration and funding models linking public and private databases and federated data could provide greater opportunity for soil-health monitoring.

Alignment of these new models with the work undertaken by the Cooperative Research Centre for High Performing Soils to develop and measure soil-health indicators for the future could be the foundation for a state soil and land condition monitoring program.

The SRCCL report comes just in time for the UN Climate Summit 2019 on September 23.

I’ve just read the early news feed on reactions to the SRCCL and I thought it was significant that repeated UN Climate Secretary António Guterres warning to delegates coming to this year’s Summit in New York: “I am telling leaders don’t come to the summit with beautiful speeches.”

This is a call to action. I hope that our recommendations to the Victorian Government will encourage and facilitate our progress to tackle the challenge of environmental degradation and climate risk.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:48am
Declared conflicts of interest:
None declared.
Annette Cowie is the Principal Research Scientist, Climate Climate Branch at the NSW Department of Primary Industries and an author on the report

Land is a critical resource, central to feeding the world, tackling climate change, ensuring human well-being and protecting nature. But the land is under pressure, and climate change is increasing that pressure.

Maintaining and improving the health of our land is vital.

Land and climate are interdependent: climate change exacerbates land degradation and diminishes carbon uptake by the land. Land degradation also reduces the resilience of human and natural systems to cope with climate change. 

On the other hand, the interconnections between land and climate also mean that controlling land degradation and enhancing land resources can deliver multiple benefits: climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, food security, sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. 

Unsustainable agriculture, for food and fibre production, has been a major driver of climate change – but agriculture is also an important part of the solution

Holistic approaches are required to overcome the complex pressures driving unsustainable agriculture.

Measures to foster sustainable consumption, and reduce food loss and food waste, can further support sustainable food systems.

Agriculture, including deforestation, is responsible for about 1/5 of global GHG emissions.

But the land also takes up about 1/3 of emissions from the use of fossil fuels. And it can do more: when we plant trees and use sustainable land management practices that increase soil organic matter, we take carbon out of the atmosphere and store it in the land.

What’s more, this improves the productivity of the land, and its resilience to climate change. It also supports other ecosystem services and conservation of biodiversity.

I’m talking about using crop rotations, cover crops, strategically-placed perennial energy crops that can be used for renewable bioenergy, mixed cropping/grazing systems that use livestock to reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and herbicides, using biochar and biosolids as soil amendments that return nutrients and organic matter to the land, agroforestry. 

And we need to look across the food supply chain - another important aspect is tackling food loss and waste. There has been a lot of attention to this lately – currently, about 1/3 of food produced is lost or wasted – if we reduce that loss we free up land for energy crops and reforestation.

So the land can play an important role in meeting the challenge of climate change.

But it can’t do it all  - we urgently need a coordinated approach that reduces emissions in every sector.

We need to halt and reverse land degradation to maintain the capacity of the land to sequester carbon, and support food production.

We a mix of policy responses that create incentives for sustainable land management, such as the incentives under the Emissions Reduction Fund – now Carbon Solutions Fund – that allow landholders to earn carbon credits for storing carbon in vegetation and soil. 

This action is needed urgently – the longer we wait, the more land becomes degraded, the more carbon we put in the atmosphere, the harder it will be to meet the goal to limit global warming to less than 2 degrees, and to maintain the health of the land, and to feed the growing global population.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:46am
Declared conflicts of interest:
Annette was one of the authors of Chapter 4 of the report (Land Degradation).
Dr Mark Stafford Smith is the Co-Chair of the Steering Committee for Future Earth Australia, a program of the Australian Academy of Science

'Climate Change and Land' adds yet more urgency to the need to act on climate change, and shows how deeply both the causes and consequences of climate change are linked into our everyday lives and everyday behaviours. 
These messages are especially important for a dryland continent like Australia, where climate change is making it harder to manage our land to minimise emissions and maximise production, yet poor land management is contributing to the emissions that cause climate change.  
The report highlights how humans are pressing so many of the buttons that will contribute to compromising our global life support system. On the positive side, it highlights many places where quite modest actions could dramatically reduce the pressure on the land, whether in reducing food waste, shifting diets a little, better supporting our farmers to manage their land well, or avoiding water losses.  
In many of these, individuals can contribute usefully by changing levels of consumption, in ways that often also have personal health and financial co-benefits. It is in Australia’s profound interest to support global efforts to turn current trends around.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:44am
Declared conflicts of interest:
None declared.
Professor Andy Pitman is the Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science at the University of NSW

The new IPCC Special Report provides a thorough assessment of the interconnectiveness of climate change and land.

There are many deep insights, including the challenges of partly managing climate change, through land management while maintaining food security.

Given that the land is warming much faster than the climate as a whole, and with the observed increase in temperature extremes and heatwaves, the report re-enforces the need to deeply and dramatically cut greenhouse gas emissions, at the same time as urgently examining how Australia can protect the vital contribution of land in terms of settlements, water, food and biodiversity.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:43am
Declared conflicts of interest:
None declared.
Professor Mark Howden is Director of the ANU Climate Change Institute at The Australian National University and is an author on the report

Climate change is rapidly ramping up existing threats to the land, reducing its ability to feed and support populations around the world and impacting on ecosystems.

At the same time, the land sector is currently contributing to climate change, even as it potentially offers some of the solutions to reducing greenhouse gases.

This report confirms the world has a double-edged sword hanging over its head.   

We ignore the interactions between climate change and the land at our peril.

If left unchecked, the current situation threatens to make climate change worse, and leave the world hungry and with increasingly damaged ecosystems.”

[From ANU release: Professor Howden noted land use and the global food system produce 29 per cent of the world’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Land-based ecosystems also absorb 22 per cent of GHG emissions.]

“With the right management, there is potential to reduce the land sector’s GHG emissions and increase the land’s carbon sinks.

But the land sector alone cannot address climate change. Reducing our fossil fuel emissions remains absolutely vital.

Better land management not only delivers win-wins for farmers, communities, governments and biodiversity but also helps address climate change.

The IPCC’s latest report highlights yet again that climate change is not some distant future threat – it’s relevant to all of us now and it is in our own interests to address it urgently.

Improving our management of the land and tackling climate change the same time will bring multiple economic, health and environmental benefits.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:41am
Declared conflicts of interest:
Mark is an author on the report.
Associate Professor Anita Wreford is from AERU, Lincoln University in New Zealand. She is an author on the report

The Special Report on Climate Change and Land synthesises and presents the key evidence relating to the interactions between land and climate. It represents an enormous body of literature and expertise from an international team of scientists, conducted over more than two years. It covers an extensive range of topics and issues around: how our activities on land affect the climate; how a changing climate is and will increasingly affect how we use the land, and; policy instruments and mechanisms to address these interactions.

It highlights that we rely on the land for food, energy, water, health and well-being, but it is already under pressure, and climate change will exacerbate these pressures.

The report is highly relevant for New Zealand as we grapple with the trade-offs involved with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to the impacts of climate change, managing the areas we value and maintaining and supporting our communities and societies in this process. The report puts these issues in the wider context of global climate and land.

The report highlights the importance of carefully designed policies that do not contradict each other or lead to unintended consequences, and careful planning and consideration of the long term in decision-making. Early action will be less costly than delaying action, and will generate opportunities to address wider issues beyond climate, including sustainable livelihoods, maintaining biodiversity, addressing societal inequalities and improving our health. However, the report emphasises that while better land management can help to tackle climate change, it cannot do it all – we still need steep greenhouse gas reductions across all sectors.

This report will provide policy-makers with the synthesised evidence, and examples from around the world, of the implications of decisions they make regarding land and climate change. It is of critical relevance to New Zealand given the contribution of the land-based sector to our economy, as well as its dominance in our emissions profile.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:39am
Declared conflicts of interest:
This comment was collected by the NZ SMC. Anita was one of the authors of Chapter 7 of the report (Risk management and decision making in relation to sustainable development).
Dr Pep Canadell, CSIRO Research Scientist, and Executive Director of the Global Carbon Project

The report is a sobering assessment of how much human activities have abused land resources with increased degradation and desertification, and a more recent greening trend, in good part reflecting the intensification of agriculture.

Those changes have led to decreased carbon stored in vegetation and soils, and increased methane (eg, from livestock) and nitrous oxide (eg, from fertilizers) emissions. Together, greenhouse gases emissions from the land have contributed to about one-quarter of all human-induced climate change. Remarkably, the global land has already warmed 1.5C above pre-industrial levels, 50 per cent higher temperature than the global warming (land and oceans). 

The results of the report are a clear call for a wholesale rethinking of the way we use and manage the land to ensure long term sustainable pathways for agricultural productivity, conservation, and an adequate use and restoration of the land to contribute to mitigate climate change.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:37am
Declared conflicts of interest:
None declared.
Professor Steven Sherwood is ARC Laureate Fellow at the ARC Centre for Climate System Science and UNSW Climate Change Research Centre

A major aspect of this new report is to assess land-use strategies proposed to help reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

The findings are complex, but one key conclusion is that preventing desertification and deforestation around the globe would bring win-win benefits at low risk. Another is that there are limits to land-based carbon sequestration and biofuel production, especially since these tend to impinge on other land uses.

The detailed findings of this report will be important as the world tries to manage atmospheric carbon dioxide, and are particularly relevant for the Australian federal government’s plans to use land sequestration of carbon to help achieve Paris targets.

Last updated: 09 Aug 2019 11:36am
Declared conflicts of interest:
None declared.

News for:

New Zealand

Media contact details for this story are only visible to registered journalists.